2.ANDROID PLATFORM

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Android is a Linux based mobile operating system that uses Linux for its device drivers,memory management, process management,Permission-based security model,support for shared libraries,Provide core system services and networking. It provides an abstract layer between the H/W and the rest of the S/W stack.The features of a Linux based OS helps the Android to develop.

Above the kernel there lies the Android native libraries. Libraries are normally written in C/C++ and can be called through Java interfaces. In this layer you can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media codecs, the SQL database (SQLite), and a native web browser engine (WebKit).

Application frameworks run above libraries and  Android run time. Dalvik Virtual Machine optimized for mobile devices  and Dalvik runs dex  files, which are coverted at compile time from standard class and jar files.Applications are found even above the application frameworks.

Other features of Android platform are:

1) It extends media support for common audio, video, and still image formats  (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
2) It suports wireless communication using:GSM mobile phone technology,3G ,EDGE,802.11 wifi network.Especially,
          Cellular networking : GSM, EDGE, 3G (hardware dependent)
           LAN : Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (hardware dependent)
3) Graphics Hardware Acceleration
4) Camera, GPS and Compass (hardware dependent)
5) Touch screen and accelerometerfor motion sensing
6)Integrated browser based on the open source WebKit engine
7)SQLite for relational data storage

While running an application, security is ensured in Android which is much similar to that of Linux facilities.User and group IDs are assigned to applications just like super user power and normal user power in Linux. Due to this, security is enforced at the process level .A permission mechanism in Android enforces restrictions on the specific operation that  a particular process can perform, and per-URI permissions for granting ad-hoc access to specific pieces of data.

1.INTRODUCTION TO ANDROID

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SMART PHONES – without which the world seems to slow down, have become an  essential companion of modern civilization.The new Gen-Y ‘technology assistant’ that help us to carry out various tasks in a blink,is governing the markets.The fastness and the robustness that we experience today is the result of the evolution of Android and the key role that it plays, to maintain a cutting edge experience for the users ,developers, industry and business.
When we turn back to the history we can witness the strong hold of Google and other OHA based tech giants, that support the development of Android. This strong foundation and correct time-to-market made Android a cherry pick for the users. In July 2005 , Google started the revolutionary concept of mobile OS by conquering  Android Inc. Later on 5th November 2007 OHA (Open Handset Alliance) was formed which consisted of Google,HTC,Intel,Motorola,T-mobile. Developed by Google,Android is considered to be the first OHA product. It comes under version 2 of the Apache Software License (ASL).On 12 th November 2007 they released the preview of Android OHA. The main aim of OHA was to devote in advancing open standards for mobile devices and to develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile technologies and services.
Android is a complete and modern embedded operating system  which can act as an operating system, middle ware and key mobile application. It works based on the Linux kernel, hence promoting the free and open source concepts.It was an attempt to open the world of mobile applications to take the full advantage that a handset can offer.Combining all mobile applications under one platform was an attempt to  generalize phone’s core applications and third-party applications. Users could take full advantage of inbuilt as well as other external applications.The restrictions imposed by the phone manufactures to use their proprietary software came to a halt with the emergence of Android. The limitations of the handset was completely over taken by the Android applications.
Android significantly enhanced the open source concepts and made applications free for use. The flexibility and mobility of Android was a boon to geeks who got engaged in shrinking the world to our finger tips. Google play have contributed much to this growth.Millions of applications are being developed and distributed around the world and the benefit that Google obtains through android is unbeatable.
 If you think Android as just a software development platform then its high time you change your view points, the influence of Android is unimaginable that it started to appear in hardware oriented scenarios also.But don’t think that its a single piece of  hardware. Its a complete, end to end software platform that can be applied to any hardware configurations.
We can find no such areas where Android haven’t  extended its reach.Let it be business  promotions, professional development, games or anything else, all  have taken a new step to reach to their clients and the path they have chosen is Android applications.The increasing popularity of smart phones and the usage of android applications have open the market for developers.Following the footsteps of Google and Android others have entered the game,especially windows phone that runs with windows 8,apples iOS and firefox OS and much more are coming .Now it will be interesting to see what new plans are being cooked up behind the curtains.

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LATEST TECHNICAL ADVANCEMENTS

A PEEP INTO ‘WOW’ TECH
 
With the advancements of technology the world is rapidly undergoing a renovation. There are many catalysts in these advancements. Let’s have a peep into some of them:
The advancements in the fields of graphene are going to revolutionize the Internet. It will speed up the internet by up to 100 times. This development wills surely double the pace of the evolution that the web is undergoing.



BIG DATA
With the flooding of data in internet, the availability of resources increased, but the arising big data problems is sucking the life of the web. The development of the “Superman Memory Crystal”, a small disk that is able to hold 360 Terabytes of data and preserve it for over one million years will enhance the storage mechanisms. In the future there will be overflow of data and the problems associated with it will be tackled with the superman memory crystal. 
 
ROBO ASSISTED LIFE
 Another technology that will assist the physically disabled people is the “Robohand” which is a 3D-printed hand for people who are missing fingers. The medical field also witnessed the development in various Innovative wearable artificial pancreas and other human parts which will be a part of our human body.Pancreum CoreMD & BetaWedge are developd to ensure the humans, the ability to live their life smoothly.
In order to assure the security the “Doorbot” are the solutions…It enables you to view who is at your door through your phone.
 
SMART PHONES
The market dominating smart phones are now the symbol of trending technology. The multipurpose smart phones available in our hands reach have exceeded the limitations of an ordinary PC. The advanced options proposed by these smart phones enable the users to communicate, interact and exchange knowledge. Information at your finger  tips is now a reality.

HARDWARE REVOLUTION

The revolution of hardware is under progress.Raspberry pi leading the hardware area with the breathtaking ideas and wide range of opportunities, make the upcoming technology highly sophisticated. Arduino and other boards are emerging to dominate the industry.

 
HUMAN SURVIVAL
With the increase in population, the human will have no space left on earth to accommodate. If this tends to go on like this , it’s sure that we will have to search  other planets or under water scrapers for survival. The trending hypothetical technology of ULTIMA TOWER, Water-Scraper and space settlement colonies are breaking the limitations of human imagination.
 
COLLABORATE AND WORK
Lenovo has unveiled a computer the size of a coffee table that works like a giant tablet and can be used by up to four people at once .This will help “collaborate and work” model in web.
 
COMMUNICATION
NASA has successfully sent an image of the Mona Lisa to the moon with a laser. Are lasers the future of interplanetary communication? This question is an eye opener to the upcoming communication technologies. The future of communication is more flexible with the development of new and advanced fibre optical cables and other  satellite communication technologies.
 
ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT
 A New Technology Converts Solar Energy into Vapour which have the capability to revolutionize the energy production and storage methods. This technology will mark the beginning of a much awaited movement for future.
 
HIGH TECH LIFE
The days of storing passwords in your brain are numbered. In a few years’ time you may be able to log into your online bank account using an electronic tattoo on your arm, or a pill that, once swallowed, broadcasts a password through the wall of your stomach.
 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Human Brain project and Blue brain projects are the stepping stone in making the artificial intelligence a prime focus in the upcoming era. There are various fields in AI like genetic algorithm, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy logic that give a push to the developmental works.
AEROSPACE AND ASTRONOMY
The VASIMR concept of electro-magnetic thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is the modern step towards a faster propulsion technology. The manned MARS mission is on and the advancements in astronomy are being utilized. The experiments at International Space Station give a hope for the golden era of astronomy.
 
Researchers are going on in fields like nano technology, genome sequencing, quantum computers, super conductors and much more. The current trends will change and the path shown by these will surely enhance the development of other fields. Aforementioned areas are just the example of 21st century wow-factors. There are many areas which have shown promising growth. It’s time we move along with the technical advancements and be aware of them.

Fantasy to verity

Tech at a glance
Once upon a time there lived nomads who dreamt of flying just like the birds. They saw the dream, but their successors made it a reality. Ideas that seeded in their mind found the need to break their chains and flew high. They showed the world that imagination have the power to make things come true. When the 21st century blossomed, it witnessed a technical renaissance that changed the existence of human beings. What once thought to be found only in films and dreams have taken shape in front of us and that have made us open our mouths in awe. These advancements give the strength to see more dreams and make them true. The degree of interaction between humans and technology have increased to such an extent that the 21st century seems to make all the fascinations true. 
As Karl Marx stated, “………the formation of social relations, mental conceptions and attitudes are dependent upon technology”
 
It is evident that technology is the key that transforms the mentality of the people and the well being of the society. The connection and influence of technology on human thinking and society is widely under discussion. There are many positive as well as negative thoughts regarding the advancements. Some predicts that the world depicted in Matrix film can be seen in near future. Such a situation is not far that we humans will be under the control of robots. Technology can encroach our life and the tunes of our life may be put in purgatory.  There are also views that, these technical advancements can change the course of the universe and that a new era is waiting for us, a world where there will be no torments or wars.
 
When man discovered fire, it was the turning point of the humanity. With the arrival of Wheels he expanded his kingdom. That was when the technology started to take its baby steps. Now when we fast forward, we see Internet as the primary key that plays the key role in current advancements. The 21st century has been full of sumptuous inventions and discoveries; with the advancements from touch screen phones, BigData, Artificial Intelligence, Open hardware’s etc.With out the influence of Internet technologies all other areas that utilized it also developed to greater heights. Internet could increase the pace of development of other areas and developed inter disciplinary works, thus accelerating the collaborative development. The ease of access for data and information exchange can be viewed as the keystone in the developments of 21st century.
 
 

Twitter was created to answer one small question “what are you doing?”  But now it’s a platform to extend your business, personal aspects.Sometimes pictures can speak more than words and hence the interest and histogram have paved a new way of revolutionizing our thoughts.Even these platforms help us interact in our professional life LinkedIn and other professional organizations have extended the job search and opened the job market for the people.
 
MOOCs have become a reliable platform for acquiring knowledge thus developing a new ‘Educational Culture’. It makes the education available at our door steps. The availability of online classes and online channels help us to interact, exchange and acquire knowledge. Similarly Think binder and other technologies have showed that internet can maintain, collaborate and work together sitting at different poles.
 
Technology has revolutionized our world. From specs to Google glass, letters to chats, chats to hangouts, likes and tweets have conquered our world and now the change is rapid. Internet has become a part of our life .it gives us an exposure to communicate dynamically. If technology has contributed to computer science similar is the case of all other domains. Even those areas that seemed to be unrecognized have become a part of this revolution. Advancements of card size computers and the revolution of 2 second mobile charging seemed to speed up this evolution.
Real environment, augmented reality, virtual environment are surely going to make our world a virtual one.The advancements in genetics, energy, materials, and brain and information technologies will support the transformations.
 
Modern technology has provided a platform for us to lead a comfortable life. There is no work that can be completed without the help of technology. We are being addicted to it. We have no idea when likes, comments, tweeps, tweets, tweeting have entered into our mundane life. Social networking websites represent the wheels of technical advancements. These sites are even used for business promotions. Thus becoming a “virtual world” where we keep a unique identity and maintain a dual life. Teenagers and professionals both strive to keep their profiles updated and maintain a thin line between their dual lives.    
 
It’s true that new technologies enhance the capabilities and those are changing the way people view the world. “Success with social networking” is the new motto of Y-Gen. But despite advances in technology, have we humans, truly changed? Has technology altered the ways our minds function? 21st century technologies have expanded the public space, but have not fundamentally changed the human thought process. Whatever happens the well wishers of technology prays that these advancements should not have the fate of Maginot line.